黄曲霉毒素 in 野生动物 Feed: Know How to Protect 野生动物


黄曲霉毒素是由 曲霉属真菌 真菌. 曲霉属真菌 spores occur naturally in the soil and may be transported to grain crops by wind 或昆虫. 黄曲霉毒素 affect both native and agricultural grains. 损害谷物 from high tempera-tures, drought or insect infestation may allow colonization of 曲霉属真菌 导致黄曲霉毒素污染.



At least 48 countries regulate aflatoxin in food and feed crops. 美国.S. 设置操作 levels in 1968, following the identification of aflatoxin and its associated animal 以及人类健康风险. The FDA can support enforcement action if aflatoxin levels exceed 20 ppb when the feed destination is unknown. 其中包括野生动物饲料 在这个标准中,它很少被执行. This results in the frequent use of contaminated 为野生动物做诱饵和饲料的谷物.

Additional in形成 on USFDA action levels and regulatory guidelines can be found 浏览以下网址:

In形成 about Health and 黄曲霉毒素




Aflatoxin was first identified when it caused the death of commercially-raised turkeys in 1963. Regulation for animal and human consumption soon followed. 而黄曲霉毒素 has been implicated in mass mortality of waterfowl and other 野生动物 species, the majority of people involved in 野生动物 feeding are unaware of the risk it poses to 野生动物. Therefore, while it is known to cause many negative effects, the impact of aflatoxin on 野生动物 populations is largely unknown.

黄曲霉毒素是已知的致癌物. Ingestion of contaminated grains can result in chronic 或急性毒性. Aflatoxin exposure has been characterized by organ dysfunction, 内出血和死亡. Ingestion of small amounts of contaminated grain has been associated with decreased feeding rate and nutrient uptake, decreased reproductive performance, birth defects, tumors and suppressed immune system function.

野生动物 may be exposed to aflatoxins through supplemental feeding and baiting practices. While the lethal concentrations of aflatoxin for wild-bred animals have not been determined, care should be taken to reduce the risk of toxicity in 野生动物 through thoughtful 饲料的购买、储存和分发.



Avoid grains with any visible signs of mold growth, as this may indicate the presence 黄曲霉毒素的. 黄曲霉毒素 are invisible, but mold growth is a strong indicator that 黄曲霉毒素可能存在. Avoid grains that are “clumping,” as this may indicate 霉菌生长的初始阶段. Purchase grain from reputable dealers, avoiding 破损或浪费的粮食. To reduce storage time, avoid purchasing grain not planned 在不久的将来使用.

黄曲霉毒素的产生发生在 曲霉属真菌 真菌 has access to the sugar present in grains. 购买供应量较低的粮食 sugar, such as milo, reduces the chances that aflatoxin will be present at the time 购买. Damage to grain kernels facilitates aflatoxin contamination. 避免购买 visibly damaged grain and intentionally cracked corn. 黄曲霉毒素的快速积累 可能在这些产品中吗.


Avoid storing grain for an extended period of time.  黄曲霉毒素污染的增加 with length of time, regardless of storage container. 期间避免储存粮食 温暖、潮湿的时期. 储粮必须保持干燥. Avoid extreme temperature fluctuations, as this may cause condensation within the storage container, leading to aflatoxin 形成. Grain beginning to form mold or containing any insects should be disposed 立即的.


Best Management Practices for Supplemental Feeding

  • Determine if supplemental feeding of 野生动物 is needed to meet your objectives and 如果值得冒这个险的话. Besides aflatoxin risk, there are other potential negative effects on 野生动物 associated with supplemental feeding such as disease 传播和捕食增加.
  • If you are going to feed deer, consider using protein supplements rather than grain 降低黄曲霉毒素的风险.
  • Use only feed grain that has been tested for aflatoxin and meets USDA approved levels 供牲畜食用. Grain sold specifically for 野生动物 may not have been tested and could contain dangerous levels of aflatoxin.
  • Avoid feeding grain in warm, moist conditions. 喂食应限制时间 当温度低于60华氏度时. Feeding grain should not be conducted when rain 或者预计会有高湿度. Feeding grain from March through October presents the 黄曲霉毒素风险最高.
  • 不要把损坏的谷物喂给野生动物. Grain that has mold or is clumping should not 使用时应掩埋或焚烧.
  • Piling grain should be avoided because it holds moisture, increasing the risk of aflatoxin 生产发生. 尽可能分散颗粒.
  • Reduce the length of time grain is exposed by limiting the amount dispensed at any 给定的时间. The prompt removal of uneaten grain is recommended, especially if it is 湿和/或发霉.
  • 使用谷物高粱(例如高粱).g.而不是玉米. 高粱容易积聚黄曲霉毒素 比玉米的速度慢.
  • Clean grain feeders regularly with bleach. Avoid refilling grain without first emptying, 清洗并充分干燥给料机.



利亚L. 戴尔



蒂莫西·J. 奥康奈尔

Associate Professor, Natural Ecology and Resource Management 





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