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Sesame Seed 油性质

Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., formerly classified as Sesamum orientale L., also referred 如姜,til, benniseed或simsim,是一种一年生草本植物,属于足跖科 家庭. Most of the wild species are native to sub-Saharan Africa. Sesame grows well 在亚热带和热带地区,通常种植在非洲和亚洲.

 

芝麻是一种一年生植物,可以长到20英寸到60英寸高 variety and the agronomic conditions. The plant is very drought-tolerant because of its extensive root system and does not require irrigation.

 

芝麻长约3 - 4毫米,宽约2毫米,厚约1毫米 in pods also referred to as capsules. Seeds can be white, buff, tan, gold, brown, reddish, gray or black. Early varieties had been grown on small plots and were harvested by hand because of shattering characteristic of the pods. Some claim the famous expression 《世界杯买球软件App》的故事出自阿里巴巴和四十大盗的故事之一 《世界杯买球App》之所以被采用是因为芝麻胶囊即使是最轻微的事情也会破裂 touch at maturity and make a popping sound while opening. Even the name of the popular 儿童电视节目“芝麻街”据说来源于短语“开放” sesame” to generate curiosity.

 

根据历史文献记载,托马斯·杰斐逊曾在试验田种过芝麻 200年前,他将其称为beni或benne,这是非洲人使用的名字. 虽然 sesame was introduced to the U.S. in the 1930s, the production has been limited because of the lack of cultivars that could be harvested mechanically. 美国.S. 商业 芝麻的生产始于20世纪50年代,当时人们发现了一种不破碎的变种 1943年,研制出适合机器收割的品种. 今天, sesame is grown in Texas and Oklahoma. Baco, Paloma, UCR3, SW-16 and SW-17 are some of the non-shattering sesame varieties grown in U.S.

 

利用

芝麻通常被用在面包、小圆面包、百吉饼、薄脆饼和蛋糕上 are consumed after toasting or crushing. Ground sesame seeds are used in East African 用来做汤和鱼的菜肴,以及在一些亚洲和印度菜中作为调味品的菜肴. 它们也是类似花生脆的甜食中很受欢迎的成分. 中间 Eastern candy known as halva is made from sweetened sesame seeds. Tahini is a sesame paste made from hulled and lightly roasted seeds. There are reports indicating seeds are used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine.

 

Sesame seeds may contain about 40% to 60% oil and 25% protein. Seed oil may be used 做饭. 芝麻油因其独特的风味和浓郁的香味而倍受青睐 used as a flavoring agent. There are reports indicating sesame seed oil also has been 在传统医学中用作外用的抗菌、抗真菌和抗病毒药物. 沙拉酱、起酥油和一些人造黄油都是用芝麻油调制的. It is a common flavor ingredient in some East Asian dishes. Sesame oil also is used 在非食品应用中,如肥皂,油漆,化妆品,香水的成分 and insecticides.

 

处理

芝麻要经过一系列的加工步骤来榨油. 这个过程是 similar to that used for other oilseeds (see OSU 事实表 fapc - 158, Oil and Oilseed 处理 I and fapc - 159, Oil and Oilseed 处理 II). Two types of sesame oil are available in the market; a pale yellow and an amber-colored aromatic oil. The latter type, which is mechanically pressed from toasted seeds is not recommended 做饭. Instead, it is normally 在冷食应用中用作调味剂或添加在最后阶段 烹饪. 因为,这种琥珀色的油不经过典型的精炼步骤 像其他食用油一样,它有一种非常强烈的味道,低烟点和燃烧 很容易. 淡黄色的油是为烹饪应用而生产的,经过好几道工序 refining steps (see 简报 fapc - 160 油脂及油籽加工(三):原油精炼及生物柴油制备 (生产)去除许多食品中不需要的颜色、香气和其他成分 配方. 榨油后剩下的芝麻粉,含量很高 proteins (34% to 50%) and used as feed for poultry and livestock.

 

油性质

Sesame seed oil is a highly unsaturated oil. 亚麻油酸 acid which is a polyunsaturated 脂肪酸是油脂的主要组成成分 约占油中所有脂肪酸的40%至50%(见表1). 亚麻油酸 酸是一种必需脂肪酸,人体无法合成它,因此, it needs to be provided in the diet to maintain good health. Oleic acid, which is 一种比亚油酸更稳定的单不饱和脂肪酸,是第二丰富的 fatty acid in sesame seed oil.

 

表1. Fatty acid composition of sesame seed oil.

脂肪酸的名字 含量(%)
Myrristic (14:0) 0.0-0.1
十六烷酸(16:0) 7.0-10
Palmitoleic (16:1) 0.1-0.2
硬脂(18:0) 4-6
十八烯(第18章) 33-44
亚麻油酸(十八2) 40-50
Linolenic (18:3) 0.3-0.5
Arachidic (20:0) 0.3-0.5
山(22:0) 0.0-0.3
Lignoceric (24:0) 0.0-03

 

虽然芝麻油富含多不饱和脂肪酸,但它被认为是最重要的 由于所含化合物的存在而具有抗氧化性和酸败性 antioxidant properties in the oil. Tocopherols and tocotrienols are two groups of fat soluble compounds with antioxidant properties. Total tocopherol content of the sesame oil varies between 530 mg per kg and 1,000 mg per kg. Gamma tocopherol is the 主要生育酚,每公斤521毫克至990毫克,其次是德尔塔(每公斤4毫克至20毫克) and alpha tocopherol (up to 3 mg per kg). Sesame oil may contain up to 20 mg per kg of gamma tocotrienol. 芝麻木酚素因其对健康的促进作用而引起人们的关注 如降低血糖和胆固醇水平,提供预防 预防心血管疾病和癌症,减轻绝经后综合症. 芝麻油中主要的木脂素是芝麻素、芝麻素和芝麻素. 分解 在芝麻油的加工过程中,芝麻脂会导致酚类物质的形成 compound called sesamol. Long shelf life of the sesame oil is attributed to sesamol. 有报告表明,芝麻醇可能作为代谢调节剂,并具有 antioxidant and anti-aging properties. 虽然 lignans are present in very small 它们在芝麻油中的含量(百万分之一),表现出显著的生物活性 activity even at very low concentrations.

 

一组被称为植物甾醇的化合物也是具有生物活性的次要成分 naturally present in sesame oil. Many scientific studies link these minor oil components 对健康的好处包括抗氧化,抗动脉粥样硬化,抗癌,血浆 cholesterol lowering and free radical inhibition effects. Phytosterol content of the sesame oil is higher than the common vegetable oils. β-Sitosterol (58% to 62% of total 植物甾醇)、菜油甾醇(10% - 20%)和豆甾醇(3% - 6%)是主要的 phytosterols found in sesame seed oil. Total phytosterol content of the oil may vary between 4,500 mg and 18,960 mg per kg. It is well established that daily consumption 食物中的植物甾醇可以降低血液中的胆固醇水平,提供预防 hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, β-sitosterol is reported 抑制前列腺癌和乳腺癌肿瘤的生长和增殖.

 

结论

芝麻油可以是人类饮食中的健康成分,只要产品是 正确地处理并在其产生的应用程序中使用. ……很重要。 需要注意的是,琥珀色的芝麻油不应在高温下使用 applications, like 烹饪 and frying. It is good for applications such as salad dressings and flavoring foods after 烹饪.

 

2021年4月23日,食品过敏安全、治疗、教育和研究(FASTER) 该法案被签署成为法律,宣布芝麻是公认的第九种主要食物过敏原 由你.S. 这一变化将于2023年1月1日生效,因此芝麻标签 as an allergen will not be required until that time.

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